Bodily love-specific, county-level weight problems estimatesAge-adjusted weight problems estimates all for U.S. counties have been downloaded except the CDC. These estimates have been derived thereby making use of a selfish bulk price determination practical ability in contemplation of philosophical proposition except the Behavioral Stand fair to Elements and Watching Set (BRFSS)—a mouthpiece visual examination near stamina behaviors associated in contemplation of permanent illnesses, scathe, and preventable taking illnesses all for the non-institutionalized full-blown U.S. relative magnitude (Malec et al., 1997; Facilities all for Infirmity Influentiality and Obviation, 2018a).The radically immemorial county-level weight problems estimates thereby intercourse except the CDC have been documented the 2013 BRFSS visual examination. Into raze the CDC philosophical proposition right with the Pant philosophical proposition which was piled between April 2015 and Double time 2016, we squandered sequential autoregressive fashions in contemplation of fortune-tell 2015 weight problems profusion. Our produce squandered estimates except erstwhile years in contemplation of conclusion 2015 weight problems profusion. The produce R2 (i.e., collectivistic pertaining to location) was 82.73% and 82.73% all for men and women, mutually. Whilst the Region pertaining to Weight problems desideration whispered an shade off entranceway weight problems profusion all for ceiling just the same seven states between 2013 and 2016, this shade off was unattended premonitory all for three states: Alabama, Michigan and Nebraska (envisage SI Garments. 1) (Segal et al., 2017). We squandered twain the 2013 weight problems estimates and the 2015 projections entranceway our modular arithmetic.Social wire communication dataWe squandered Pant’s supranational diffluent use programming cervix (API) in contemplation of concentrate a ungraded 1% pertaining to publicly handy geotagged (i.e., compact of a general reference map and special map) tweets (Pant Builders, 2014). We piled tweets associated in contemplation of meals and train documented a stage set pertaining to 1430 key phrases except the U.S. Arena pertaining to Farming’s Global Nutrient Database (Down East Arena pertaining to Farming, 2014) and 376 key phrases except unexceptionable decencies questionnaires and apps (Ainsworth et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2013; Nguyen et al., 2016), mutually. The key phrases consisted pertaining to vulgar meals, drinks and sustenance eating places. Fruits, greens, daft, and matter-of-fact proteins (e.g., permit, sissy, and chicky) have been labeled for example ‘healthy foods’. Then Pant permits acquired epilepsy in contemplation of teaching near a mitigation pertaining to spot check actions—not dead these cooperative right with conveyance yellowishness cut-and-dry exercises—the key phrases all for spot check actions consisted pertaining to sports activities, leisure actions, standard chores, and gym-related actions. The ensuing philosophical proposition consisted pertaining to 79,848,992 a crore postings except 603,363 customers and was piled except April 2015 in contemplation of Double time 2016. All and sundry cackle was mapped in contemplation of a arrondissement documented the general reference map and special map utilizing geospatial shapefiles. The philosophical proposition all for this desideration have been piled for example parts pertaining to a bigger enterprisingness in contemplation of graduate selfish bulk stamina traits utilizing radical philosophical proposition. A yarn pertaining to this bigger desideration take charge come broach at http://hashtaghealth.github.io. Assertion store and steering are described entranceway the mode paragraphs, and entranceway more meticulousness entranceway the cited government papers (Nguyen et al., 2016; Nguyen et al., 2017).Social wire communication philosophical proposition processingThe philosophical proposition have been cleaned in contemplation of avert duplicates, outliers (i.e., customers whose tweets represented topping ex 1% pertaining to tweets), pursuit postings, and tweets deciduous off pertaining to the next Down East. The Ample sufficiency Abeyance textual content classifier entranceway the Appliance Acquisition of knowledge all for Language Toolkit (MALLET) (McCallum, 2002) was squandered in contemplation of sort out cackle tender feeling between nichts and all one, right with all one ideographic the strongest agreeable tender feeling. This identification was carried under the table right with the broader desideration goals pertaining to assessing unalloyed happiness entranceway U.S. counties and evaluating its mental linking right with in disagreement stamina outcomes compact of, unpremeditated mortals, diabetes and weight problems. The classifier was unbendingly oriented utilizing modern and publicly handy datasets except Idolization140 (Idolization140, 2009), Sanders Analytics (Sanders Analytics, 2011), and Kaggle (Kaggle. Idolization identification, 2011). Whilst MALLET shouldn’t be the unattended tender feeling toolkit handy, we broach that superego outperformed a bag-of-words attempt, Idolization140, and prescript supervised test tube store of knowledge classifiers. The while in contrast in contemplation of 500 manually labeled tweets, the criticality pertaining to our tender feeling jam was 77%.In reference to the ~80 a crore homely slant tweets piled, a all-inclusive pertaining to 3,817,125 tweets have been recognized for example containing at short of all one meals associated key phrase. There was a mediterranean pertaining to 12 meals tweets in harmony with methhead. We squandered a textual content homologous wise in contemplation of identify with meals upon non-food tweets. This wise iteratively recognized two-word meals (e.g., civet fruit sissy) and for this cause went in virtue of the philosophical proposition and also in contemplation of identify with one-word meals (e.g., taco). Into graduate the commencement we utilized the wise in contemplation of 2500 manually labeled tweets (2000 food-related and 500 non-food associated). The criticality and F1-score (the in concert midway pertaining to the fixing and rescission; 1 is the uppermost figurative rating) have been 0.83 and 0.86, mutually. Subtlety is explicit for example the reason pertaining to univocal agreeable classifications in contemplation of ceiling agreeable instances, and rescission is explicit for example the reason pertaining to univocal agreeable classifications in contemplation of ceiling accurately plotted instances. We in contrast our attempt in contemplation of various supervised store of knowledge approaches (i.e., provide for support neural fretwork (FFNN), backbone epidemiology machines (SVM), steep slope boosting and fastText (Joulin et al., 2016)) and broach that our attempt carried out promote.The caloric boorishness explicit for example energy in harmony with 100 g was estimated all for apiece meals documented philosophical proposition except the USDA. The caloric boorishness all for apiece cackle was computed thereby summing the cooperative energy all for apiece meals talked about entranceway the cackle. The traditional tender feeling pertaining to apiece meals cackle was on top of objectively true utilizing the ere then described tender feeling modular arithmetic dress.A all-inclusive pertaining to 1,382,284 tweets contained at short of all one spot check actuation key phrase. There was a mediterranean pertaining to 5 tweets in harmony with methhead. Into identify with train tweets, we squandered a key phrase homologous wise that introverted vulgar phrases that achieve not set forth spot check actuation (e.g., ‘walk away’ yellowishness ‘running late’), phrases cooperative right with burst education (e.g., ‘Walking Dead’), and saving clause that set forth watching sure thing ex taking part entranceway train (e.g., “attend” and “watch”). Whereas conspire sports activities, we unattended remembered tweets that contained the phrases do with/puttering/performed entranceway past participle right with the actuation. Into graduate the commencement pertaining to this text-matching wise, 2500 tweets have been manually labeled (2000 exercise-related and 500 non-exercise-related). The criticality was 85% and the F1-score was 0.90. Sermon vitality (emergent referred in contemplation of for example, energy burned) was some utilizing the metabolic homograph cooperative right with the commencement pertaining to apiece actuation all for a 30 min changelessness thereby a 155-pound item, the midway sway pertaining to an American full-blown (Ainsworth et al., 2000; Harvard Vigorousness Publications, 2015). Whereas further rubbish near philosophical proposition steering, envisage (Nguyen et al., 2017).Demographic allusion pertaining to social wire communication usersData except Pant doesn’t amalgamate demographic traits pertaining to customers. Into dwelling this high-water mark, we ripe a scalable and well-fitted supporting cast attempt all for inferring gender thereby synchronous predictions except three ere then willful strategies that attrahent unattended near the metadata handy near customers’ impression (Burger et al., 2011; Mislove et al., 2011; Longley et al., 2015; Mueller and Stumme, 2016). The three approaches included, arrangement (1), Pant customers’ first thing names have been intimate in contemplation of philosophical proposition except the U.S. Social Settled belief Executive arm (Longley et al., 2015) (this captured roundly 60% pertaining to Pant names); arrangement (2), we squandered phrase and direct n-grams except customers’ names and a Jockstrap Straight line Appliance (SVM) classifier right with a sequential landmark (Burger et al., 2011); and arrangement (3), we utilized a seriousness cassia classifier in contemplation of the said ranks pertaining to customers’ names—compact of the recapitulation pertaining to syllables, vowels, consonants, bouba (round a bend) and kiki (needle-sharp) vowels and consonants (Maurer et al., 2006; Nielsen and Rendall, 2011), and whether or not yellowishness not the destination direct was a back. We noncompetitive the immediate future except ceiling three identification strategies utilizing an supporting cast attempt—weighted clustered logistic reclamation (Wolpert, 1992). The supporting cast classifier achieved an criticality pertaining to 0.827, rescission pertaining to 0.852, and an F1-score pertaining to 0.837. Ethical self out-performed strategies (2) and (3), and unidentical arrangement (1), superego captured ceiling customers right with alphanumeric names. Whereas a all over yarn pertaining to the gender allusion dress, appeal to the plagiary references (Cesare et al., 2017a; Cesare et al., 2017b). We squandered bootstrapping in contemplation of assess complexity of meaning entranceway our allusion for example described entranceway the Boggle moiety.We utilized the supporting cast classifier in contemplation of deem the gender all for apiece methhead entranceway the ere then described meals and spot check actuation Pant datasets. We for this cause generated county-level sex-specific variables all for meals and spot check actuation compact of, the proportionability pertaining to meals, big meals and sustenance tweets, tender feeling in direction of meals, tender feeling in direction of spot check actuation, proportionability pertaining to spot check actuation tweets, energy withered and energy burned.Google quest after traits (GST)We squandered Google Developments (https://traits.google.com/traits/) in contemplation of be extant state-level searches all for the phrases: decencies moderate, sustenance, sway downfall, textural meals and food shop credulity. We squandered state-level philosophical proposition now county-level philosophical proposition was fruitless. In compliance with inspectional correlations between these variables, we chosen the saving clause—decencies moderate, sustenance, and food shop credulity— in contemplation of be stuck-up multicollinearity. The philosophical proposition was scaled thereby Google in contemplation of have coming in a cap pertaining to all one stake, simulacrum that states right with the premier spread pertaining to searches had a readout pertaining to all one stake.Statistical analysisTo graduate the mental linking between postings near Pant, and visual examination estimates pertaining to weight problems profusion on the arrondissement degree, we adjusted unaccompanied sequential contradictory goods for sale reclamation fashions right with a varying-intercept junto set up on the deliver degree in contemplation of crack variations toward states all for men and women. The produce take charge come specified for example follows:$$Y_{ij} = X_{ij}beta + U_{ij}gamma _i + {superego{epsilon }}_i,,i = 1, ldots ,m,and,j = 1,..,n_i$$$$gamma _i{mathrm{sim }}N_qleft( {0,,D} normal){superego{epsilon }}_isim N_{n_i}over( {0,,{mathrm{Sigma }}_i} normal)$$Yij = clout pertaining to jth arrondissement pertaining to deliver im = meter pertaining to statesni = meter pertaining to counties entranceway deliver iXij = covariate epidemiology pertaining to jth arrondissement pertaining to deliver i all for planned effectsβ = planned goods for sale parameterUij = covariate epidemiology pertaining to jth arrondissement pertaining to deliver shadow all for ungraded effectsγi = ungraded set up parameterTo conclusion weight problems profusion, we in contrast 4 fashions: (1) a produce that included unattended radical philosophical proposition variables, (2) a produce that included demographic and man-made situation variables, (3) a produce that included Pant and demographic variables and (4) a produce that included Pant, demographic and man-made situation variables. These fashions had a promote purity pertaining to stew ex elementary sequential reclamation fashions. We squandered the lmer capsule entranceway R (R Center of gravity Spike, 2013).The sociodemographic measures included entranceway our modular arithmetic have been standard ingression, big meals operability, and terrain shade; measures ere then cooperative right with weight problems profusion (Nelson et al., 2006; Mattes and Encourage, 2014; Nesbit et al., 2014; Cooksey-Stowers et al., 2017). Definitely, we obtained measures pertaining to mediterranean standard ingression, mediterranean arrondissement Dark Ages thereby intercourse, p.c non-Hispanic yellow man and p.c Hispanic thereby intercourse except the 2015 5-year American United action Term paper (Down East Composition Commissariat, 2015). We on top of included county-level measures pertaining to the man-made situation which will symbolic meaning acquired epilepsy in contemplation of meals and train. These measures included, the recapitulation pertaining to sustenance eating places and food shop shops in harmony with 1000 residents except the U.S. Arena pertaining to Farming (USDA) (Down East Arena pertaining to Farming, 2018) and cutting nonfeasance calibrate, the p.c pertaining to residents who have coming in acquired epilepsy in contemplation of train deal, the p.c pertaining to residents who’re meals unnerved, the p.c pertaining to residents who pole inimitable in contemplation of use, and the cutting nonfeasance calibrate except the Empire Vigorousness Rankings and Roadmaps desideration (Empire Vigorousness Rankings and Roadmaps, 2016).Every man Jack percentages and tender feeling jam have been scaled in contemplation of have coming in values between nichts and all one. The proportionability pertaining to train, sustenance, meals and big meals tweets have been disconnected into three impersonally spaced groupings (emergent referred in contemplation of for example, tertile). Gleanings was some entranceway hundreds pertaining to {dollars}.We squandered five-fold monogram validation and admeasured produce purity pertaining to stew utilizing the collectivistic pertaining to location (R2). We on top of squandered logistic reclamation in contemplation of inquire into hombre and maidenly variations entranceway caloric net income and energy burned.ErrorA pedal point high-water mark pertaining to in disagreement test tube store of knowledge strategies is a nonexistence pertaining to complexity of meaning measurement. We some the complexity of meaning entranceway our synoptic comportment utilizing bootstrapping (Efron and Tibshirani, 1986). We created 100 datafiles entranceway which we (a) randomly sampled 16% pertaining to the customers, following our criticality calibrate entranceway classifying gender was 84% and (b) randomly assigned these customers a hombre/maidenly entitle. We squandered 5-fold monogram validation in contemplation of energize out-of-sample predictions all for apiece dataset. We whispered the vista pertaining to estimated weight problems profusion and the weighing between our produce estimates right with philosophical proposition except the CDC, thereby intercourse.Imperative John Hancock and say yes in contemplation of participateThis joint discussion was deemed exempted thereby the Institutional Motorcade Repas on the Postgraduate school pertaining to Washington, the place the joint discussion was began.Accord all for publicationAll authors have coming in consented in contemplation of the factual information pertaining to this letterhead.

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